Comparative advertising is essentially any advertising which explicitly or implicitly compares characteristics of the advertiser's goods or services to those of its competitor. Comparative advertising is permitted provided it complies with certain conditions, which are set out in Article 3a(1) of Directive 85/450 concerning misleading and comparative advertising. These provide that the advert must compare "like with like" and be objective and must not cause a likelihood of confusion, discredit/denigrate that trade mark, take unfair advantage of the reputation of the trade mark or present the goods as imitations or replicas.
In May 2008, international law firm Hammonds became a limited liability partnership. Hammonds LLP and its affiliated undertakings has offices in Birmingham, Leeds, London and Manchester in the UK, and in Berlin, Brussels, Beijing, Hong Kong, Madrid, Munich and Paris.