In response to the latest political and social developments in Africa and the Middle East, the United Nations (UN) and its Members recently imposed and reinforced severe embargoes against various countries. In the first months of 2011 alone, the European Union (EU) imposed sanctions against Congo, the Ivory Coast, Iraq, Libya, Tunisia and Zimbabwe. Earlier in 2010, the EU reinforced sanctions against Iran beyond those measures agreed upon by the UN. Restrictive measures were not only targeted against countries by also against those individuals, including members of (former) governments deemed responsible for having committed inhuman acts. The increased use of embargoes and sanctions merits a closer look and the export controls of the EU and its Member States and what business entrepreneurs have to do to comply with these rules.
*This article was first published in the Australian Journal of Competition and Consumer Law at (2011) 19 AJCCL 150